Patents are exclusive rights conferred to the owner of the invention in a territory or region or nation to protect the invention. Nations have individual patent laws or framework for protecting the invention, framed under guidelines of WIPO and WTO. Individual countries act as independent entities with specific IPR law framework framed under their respective Constitution. For example United States patent law has provision to patent a software or computer program whereas Indian patent law does not allow patenting the software independently instead it can be with association with electronic or mechanical instruments.
Owner of patent can have exclusive right to run a business, production, and do research using his invention in the territory he owns the right without any obstruction. The invention can be licensed to others for conducting business, research and manufacturing with return of royalty.
After globalization businesses are not limited to one nation or region they are always trying to expand by targeting different markets of the world. When a business is based on novel invention which need to be marketed in multiple nations patenting the invention in more than nation provides avenue to flourish the business. Having patent on an invention in one nation does not ascertain exclusive marketing rights in other countries of interest so getting the patent in that country will empower the business in marketing the invention. By patenting the invention in other countries even if there is no intent of establishing the business in those countries but the rights on the invention in those countries will be secured by the owner or company, this will help in licensing the invention to other entities in return of royalty.
The companies or individual have to protect their invention in accordance to the patent laws of respective nations or regions. For example a pharmaceutical invention has to be manufactured in one country where it has some economic advantages for the business and researched in one country and sold in other nations. Also clinical trials of the product have to be done in various nations. In order to protect the rights of the invention in various nations the patent has to filed and granted in accordance to respective patent laws different countries.
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